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Colonists of limestone dry stone walls In Winsley, West Wiltshire


Dry stone wall with crustose lichens

 Lichens and fungi are fascinating organisms that have captured the attention of scientists for decades. Recent studies have shed light on their unique structure and properties, revealing a complex relationship between the fungal and algal components. One of the key areas of research in this field involves the use of molecular techniques to better understand the mechanisms behind their symbiosis. For students interested in this area of study, resources like healthcare assignment help at the link https://essaysworld.net/global-healthcare-assignment-writing can be invaluable in navigating the often-challenging coursework and assignments. With the help of expert tutors, students can gain a deeper understanding of the fascinating world of lichens and fungi and contribute to the ongoing research in this important field.On this page we have placed many images of several types of lichens, fungi, bryophytes and flowering plants that students or teachers can use in their research.

Caloplaca aurantia
A crustose lichen in close-up


Lecanora citrina
Cladonia pyxidata (Cup-moss)


A wall top covered in crustose lichens
Xanthoria parietina


Galerina pumila
Galerina pumila


Tortula muralis (Wall Screw-moss)
Schistidium apocarpum (Common Beard-moss)


Grimmia pulvinata (Grey Cushion-moss)
Grimmia pulvinata (Grey Cushion-moss)


Orthotrichum anomalum (Anomalous Bristle-moss)


Orthotrichum anomalum (Anomalous Bristle-moss)


Bryum capillare (Greater Matted Thread-moss)


Porella platyphylla (Wall Scale-moss)


Wall with Homalothecium sericeum (Silky Wall Feather-moss)
Homalothecium sericeum (Silky Wall Feather-moss)


Encalypta vulgaris (Common Extinguisher-moss)
Rhynchostegium confertum (Clustered Feather-moss)


Asplenium Ruta-muraria (Wall-Rue)
Asplenium Ruta-muraria (Wall-Rue)


Ceterach officinarum (Rustyback)
Ceterach officinarum (Rustyback)


 Polypodium vulgare agg (Polypody)
 Polypodium vulgare agg (Polypody)


Phyllitis scolopendrium
(Hart's-tongue Fern)
Dryopteris filix-mas
(Male Fern)

Flowering plants

Geranium lucidum (Shining Cranesbill)
Geranium lucidum
(Shining Cranesbill)


Geranium pyrenaicum (Hedgerow Cranesbill)
Geranium robertianum (Herb Robert)


Saxifraga tridactylites
(Rue-leaved Saxifrage)
Erophila verna
(Common Whitlow-grass)


Sedum acre
(Biting Stonecrop or Wall-pepper)
Sedum acre
(Biting Stonecrop or Wall-pepper)


Umbilicus rupestris
(Wall Pennywort)
Sedum rupestre
(Reflexed Stonecrop)


Wall with
Sedum acre (Biting Stonecrop or Wall-pepper)
Wall with Erophila verna (Common Whitlow-grass)

All pictures copyright John Presland